How many stamps do i need for a letter? Have you been trying to use stamps when posting a letter or package? Knowing exactly stamps you need for a mail can be quite confusing.
Well, it depends on three main factors –
- Size of your mail
- Weight of your mail
- The class of your mail
With these factors on hand, you can quickly check the number of stamps you need on online postage calculators. The one offered by the United States Postal Service (https://postcalc.ups.com/) is a good choice. If you are not sure of your mail’s weight, take it to your nearest post office. They will give you the details you need.
Yes, to find out how many stamps you need to paste on your letter or package can be a little challenging.
To get the calculation right, all you need to know are answers to the following questions:
- What is the size of your letter or parcel?
- What is the weight of your letter or parcel? (in grams or ounces)
- What type of class does your mail belong to?
- What is the recipient’s address?
- How Many Sheets Per Stamp
How Many Postage Stamps Do I Need for a Letter to the United States?
Check this simple table to know the answer of you question. “how many stamps do i need per oz“. For example, you will have to pay $0.63 for 1 ounce letter, then $0.24 will be added for every additional ounce.
|Type of Letters||Latest Rate||Stamps You Need|
|3 oz. First Class Large Envelope||$1.74||2 Forever stamp & 2 Additional Ounce stamp|
|2 oz. First Class Large Envelope||$1.50||2 Forever stamp & 1 Additional Ounce stamp|
|1 oz. First Class Large Envelope||$1.26||2 x 1 oz. Forever stamps|
|3 oz. First Class Letter||$1.11||1 Forever stamp & 2 Additional Ounce stamp|
|2 oz. First Class Letter||$0.87||1 Forever stamp & 1 Additional Ounce stamp|
|1 oz. First Class Letter||$0.63||1 Forever stamp|
|Postcard||$0.48||1 x Postcard stamp|
|First Class Letters additional ounces charge||$0.24||Additional Ounce Stamp|
For oversized, square or unusually shaped envelopes the price of postage stamps start at $0.99. Whereas the price of a oversized postcard is $0.60.
All postage rates are updated for 2nd Feb 2023. Postage price has increased after 22nd January 2023.
How Many Stamps Do I Need Per Ounce in 2023?
You need to use 1 Forever Stamp for standard-size envelopes (weighing a maximum of 1 ounce), according to USPS. For envelopes over one ounce, you can use extra ounce stamps or cent stamps to cover the postage charges. When mail pieces reach a weight of 3.5 ounces or more, USPS considers them as large envelopes or flats. The pricing structure of these large envelopes is quite different from the small envelopes.
If you still have many questions in your mind about the number of stamps you need to use for the weight of your letter, you have come to the right place. This guide about stamps for different ounces of letters, will answer all your questions in this regard.
Jump to: 1 ounce, 1.5 ounce, 2 ounce, 3 ounce, 3.5 ounce, 4 ounce, 5 ounce, 6 ounce, 7 ounce, 8 ounce, 9 ounce, 10 ounce, 11 ounce, 12 ounce, 13 ounce
How many stamps you need to use for a 1 Oz letter?
According to USPS, you should use only 1 Forever Stamp (valued at $0.63) for a 1 Oz letter. Apart from the weight, your letter should be in the proper dimensions mentioned by the USPS to avoid extra postage charges.
For standard letters, you should follow these USPS guidelines:
- Should be in the shape of a rectangle
- Must have a dimension of 3.5” x 5” x 0.007” (height x length x thickness)
- Must have maximum dimension of 6.5” x 11.5” x 0.25” (height x length x thickness)
- Thickness should be uniform without any edges
- Letter should be flexible, bendable and foldable
- Exterior should be made from paper
If your letter doesn’t meet these guidelines, your letter will go through a hand-sorting process, instead of a machine-sorting process. So, USPS will charge you a non-machinable surcharge of $0.30 as a fee for this.
You can use a non-machinable stamp, priced at $0.90, to pay this fee. Alternatively, you can also pay this fee by using a combination of 1 Forever Stamp, one additional ounce stamp and one 10-cent stamp.
How many stamps you need to use for a 1.5 Oz letter?
For letters weighing a maximum of 1 ounce, you have to use 1 domestic Forever Stamp to cover postage charges. While there is a lot of flexibility here for you to choose how you want to pay these charges, the same flexibility is not available when your letters weigh more than 1 ounce.
Even if your letter weighs marginally more than 1 ounce, (say about 1.1 ounces), you will have to pay the extra postage charges for the entire additional ounce, according to USPS. So, this means that the postage charges for a 2-ounce letter and the charges for a 1.1 ounce letter would be the same!
Currently, the charge for each additional ounce over an ounce is $0.24. So, for a letter of 1.5-ounce weight, you have to pay postage charges worth $0.87. You can try the following combinations to pay these charges:
- 1 domestic Forever Stamp and 1 additional ounce stamp
- 1 domestic Forever Stamp and a couple of 10-cent stamps
- A trio of 1 domestic Forever Stamp, two 10-cent stamp and one 5-cent stamps
How many stamps you need to use for a 2 Oz letter?
If your letter weighs exactly 2 ounces, you have to pay $0.87 towards postage charges for the first ounce and the additional ounce.
As we explained in the previous section, you can use different combinations of stamps to pay these charges.
The first combination explained above (1 domestic Forever Stamp and 1 additional ounce stamp) is the easiest and most-used combinations of all.
However, please note that even if your letter is marginally heavier than 2 ounces (say about 2.1 ounce), you still have to pay extra postage charges for another additional ounce. So, you might want to check the weight properly, squeeze in as much as possible, and take out the things that aren’t necessary. This way, your letter can weigh exactly 2 ounces. You can save yourself from paying extra postage charges for a full additional ounce for the marginal increase in the weight of your letter.
How many stamps you need to use for a 3 Oz letter?
According to current rules, USPS requires you pay postage charges worth $1.11 for letters weighing between 2.1 and 3 ounces. You can try these combinations to pay these postage charges.
- 1 domestic Forever Stamp and 2 additional ounce stamps.
- Trio of 1 domestic Forever Stamp, 1 additional ounce stamp and a couple of 10-cent stamps
How many stamps you need to use for a 3.5 Oz letter?
The current postage charge for a 3.5 Oz letter is $1.35, according to USPS. The combinations you can use to pay these charges are:
- 1 domestic Forever Stamps and 3 additional ounce stamp.
Also Read: How Many Stamps Do I Need for a Manila Envelope?
How many postage stamps do I need for a large envelope (flats)?
In all the above examples, you followed USPS’s postage rules for First Class Mail Letters. However, these rules apply only to letters weighing up to 3.5 ounces and those following the dimension requirements of USPS.
First Class mails should satisfy the weight and dimensions mentioned by USPS. They cannot weight more than 3.5 ounces. This is because USPS has created a separate category for heavy letters, and their postage charges are quite different from First Class Mails.
When a letter exceeds these dimensions, it is considered a “large” envelope:
- 6.125 inches of height (15.5cm)
- 11.5 inches of width (29.2cm)
- 0.25 inches of thickness (0.63cm)
A large letter shouldn’t go beyond these maximum size dimensions:
- 12 inches of height (30.48cm)
- 15 inches of length (38.1cm)
- 0.75 inches of thickness (1.9cm)
For sending letters that weigh more than 3.5 ounces, you have to refer to USPS’s postage rules for large envelopes/flats.
How many stamps you need to use for a 4 Oz letter?
Currently, the charge for a 4-ounce envelope is $1.98. You can pay this through different combinations such as:
- 3 domestic Forever Stamps, one 10-cents and one 2-cent stamps.
- One domestic Forever Stamps and 3 additional ounce stamps
- A couple of domestic Forever Stamps, a couple of additional ounce stamps and a couple of 10-cent stamps
How many stamps you need to use for a 5 Oz letter?
According to the USPS, you have to pay postage charges worth $2.22 for a 5-ounce letter. As we explained above, you can use different combinations of stamps to pay these charges.
- 3 domestic Forever Stamps, four additional ounce stamp worth 24 cents.
- 4 domestic Forever Stamps worth $2.46 (however, when you use this combination, you will overpay the postage charges by $0.24)
How many stamps you need to use for a 6 Oz letter?
The current postage charge for a 6 Oz letter is $2.46, according to USPS. The combinations you can use to pay these charges are:
- 4 domestic Forever Stamps worth $2.46 (0.63 cents each).
How many stamps you need to use for a 7 Oz letter?
The current postage charge for a 7 Oz letter is $2.70, according to USPS. The combinations you can use to pay these charges are:
- 4 domestic Forever Stamps and one additional ounce stamp.
- 5 domestic Forever Stamps worth $3 (however, when you use this combination, you will overpay the postage charges by $0.36)
How many stamps you need to use for a 8 Oz letter?
The current postage charge for a 8 Oz letter is $2.94, according to USPS. The combinations you can use to pay these charges are:
- 4 domestic Forever Stamps , two additional ounce stamp worth 24 cents.
- 5 domestic Forever Stamps worth $3 (however, when you use this combination, you will overpay the postage charges by $0.12)
How many stamps you need to use for a 9 Oz letter?
The current postage charge for a 9 Oz letter is $3.18, according to USPS. The combinations you can use to pay these charges are:
- 5 domestic Forever Stamps , one 10 cent stamp and one 2-cent stamps
- 4 domestic Forever Stamps, and three additional ounce stamps worth 0.24 cents.
How many stamps you need to use for a 10 Oz letter?
The current postage charge for a 10 Oz letter is $3.42, according to USPS. The combinations you can use to pay these charges are:
- 5 domestic Forever Stamps , one 5-cent stamp and one 1-cent stamp
- 6 domestic Forever Stamps worth $3.78 (however, when you use this combination, you will overpay the postage charges by $0.36)
How many stamps you need to use for a 11 Oz letter?
The current postage charge for a 11 Oz letter is $3.66, according to USPS. The combinations you can use to pay these charges are:
- 6 domestic Forever Stamps worth $3.78.
- 5 domestic Forever Stamps, 2 additional ounce stamp worth 24 cents, one 10-cent stamp and one 2-cent stamp.
How many stamps you need to use for a 12 Oz letter?
The current postage charge for a 12 Oz letter is $3.90, according to USPS. The combinations you can use to pay these charges are:
- 6 domestic Forever Stamps worth $3.78 and 10-cent stamp and 1 2-cent stamp.
- You can over pay with 7 domestic Forever Stamps.
How many stamps you need to use for a 13 Oz letter?
The current postage charge for a 13 Oz letter is $4.14, according to USPS. The combinations you can use to pay these charges are:
- 6 domestic Forever Stamps, one additional ounce stamps and one 10-cent stamp and one 2-cent stamp
- 7 domestic Forever Stamps worth $4.06 (however, when you use this combination, you will overpay the postage charges by $0.50)
To sum up..
The relationship between postage charges and weight of letters can be quite confusing for anybody.
So, we suggest you take all your heavy envelopes to the post office, and get the professionals there to print the postage for you. This way, you don’t have to calculate the extra charges by yourself. When they print the postage for you, you can also avoid situations where you overpay or underpay the postage fee. Discrepancies in postage fee can ultimately affect delivery of your mail.
To know more about these stamps and their uses, you can read our posts about the 14 types of USPS stamps, meaning of non-machinable stamps, expiry of USPS stamps and more.
How Many Stamps to Send a parcel to the USA?
Usually, it is quite difficult for you to post big letters or parcels in a postbox. So, you may want to take letters or parcel to a post office nearby, and ask them to dispatch it for you. However, you can check this yourself by clicking on the United States Postal Service Postage Calculator.
Here is how you can this online postage calculator
- Enter all the relevant details in the right fields. These include:
- Destination country of the parcel
- Zip code of the sender’s country
- Tick the relevant boxes to acknowledge the contents of your parcel (that may include live animals, one-day-old poultry, or any other dangerous materials)
- What is the shipment type you want to use? You have to click one of the following to know the relevant price based on the size and weight of the shipment:
- Flat Rate Postcard
- Flat Rate Envelopes
- Flat Rate Boxes
- Now, the shipping charges will be displayed on the screen. If you want to compare all types of shipments’ prices, you can click on the “Display all options” button.
- You can opt for additional features for your shipment, if you wish. This can include the following and many more:
- Registered Post features
- Certificate of Mailing
- Now, you will get to know the final shipping charges you need to pay.
- If you didn’t choose the additional features mentioned above, you could quickly check the number of stamps needed to cover the shipping cost. However, if you have chosen extras, you need to get a shipping label printed on your shipment. While you can get this done at a post office, you may also click on this to print it yourself – USPS Click & Ship Page.
How Many Stamps to Send a Letter to Mexico?
To send a mail or letter to Mexico you need 3 stamps with total value of $1.36(1 oz). So buy 2 forever stamps and one .20 cents worth of postage stamps. Forever stamp price cost $0.58 in 2021.
You can also use First-Class International Mail, which will cost you $1.30. Maximum size: 6″ length x 4-1/4″ height.
How Many Stamps to Send Deliveries to the UK?
|Mail Type & Weight||Number Of Stamps Needed – 1st class||Number Of Stamps Needed – 2nd class|
|Letter* – 100g or less||1||1|
|Large Letter** 100g or less||2||2|
|Large Letter** 101g – 250g||2||3|
|Large Letter** 251g – 500g||3||3|
|Large Letter** 501g – 750g||4||4|
|Parcel*** 751g – 1000g||5||5|
|Parcel*** 1001g – 1250g||8||7|
|Parcel*** 1251g – 1500g||10||12|
|Parcel*** 1501g – 1750g||11||13|
|Parcel*** 1751g – 2000g||14||17|
|Parcel*** 2001g – 4000g||18||21|
If the sender and receiver are based out of the UK, only flat postage charges apply, based on the shipment’s weight. From the below table, you can identify how many stamps you would need based on your letter’s weight.
- If letters exceed dimensions of 24 x 16.5 x 0.5 (cm), they carry additional charges.
- If large letters exceed dimensions of 35.3 x 25 (cm), they carry additional shipping charges.
- If parcels exceed dimensions of 45 x 35 x 16 (cm), they carry additional charges.
Sending Deliveries to Canada?
If the value of stamps is equal to or greater than the letter’s actual shipping charges, it doesn’t matter how many stamps you use in the letter. Ideally, for a one-ounce letter, you use one stamp.
Additionally, you can also use the Forever Stamps (stamps that are authorized by the government) that are always sold at a flat rate of $0.49 each.
So, if the shipping charges for a letter from the USA to Canada works out to $1.47, you can use three of these Forever stamps to cover the postage charges. It is a good decision to approach a post office for stamping your letters than doing it yourself, as it is cheaper that way.
How many postage stamps do I need to send a letter to Canada?
|Letter Weight||Stamps Needed||If you just have Domestic Forever stamps|
|1 ounce ($1.20)||1 x Global Forever stamp||3x Domestic Forever stamps ($1.65)|
|2 ounces ($1.20)||1 x Global Forever stamp||3x Domestic Forever stamps ($1.65)|
|3 ounces ($1.69)||1x Global Forever stamp
1x 35¢ Postcard stamp
1x 10¢ stamp
2x 2¢ stamps ($1.69)
|4x Domestic Forever stamps ($2.20)|
|3.5 ounces ($2.18)||1x Global Forever stamp,
1x Domestic Forever stamp,
1x 35¢ Postcard stamp,
1x 5¢ stamp,
1x 2¢ stamp,
1x 1¢ stamp (Total $2.18)
|4x Domestic Forever stamps ($2.20)|
|4 ounces ($3.06)||2x Global Forever stamps,
1x Domestic Forever stamp,
1x 10¢ stamp,
1x 1¢ stamp ((Total $3.06)
|6x Domestic Forever stamps ($3.30)|
|5 ounces ($3.28)||2x Global Forever stamps,
2x 15¢ Additional Ounce stamps,
1x Domestic Forever stamp,
1x 2¢ stamp,
1x 1¢ stamp (((Total $3.28)
|6x Domestic Forever stamps ($3.30)|
The Flat Rate Postcards, available at a fixed and flat rate of $1.15, is another option that the USPS offers to send deliveries to Canada. Designed in attractive colors for tourism purposes, these flat rate postcards (the only options that can be bought at a flat rate) can be used for sending deliveries to Canada and Mexico. The charges to these two countries are the same; however, the charges to other countries that involve air travel are quite high. The same delivery that costs $1.15 to Canada, would cost you around $2.25, when sent to Switzerland.
How Many First Class Postage Required?
The number of postage stamps required depends on the weight of a letter and the delivery method. Letters are generally 1-3 ounces. A one ounce letter required 1 first class stamp. Their price increased in 2023 and now it costs $0.63. You have to pay a charge of $0.24 for every additional ounce. Hence, a 2 ounce letter will cost you around 84 cents and for a 3 ounce letter you will have to pay $1.11. Instead of buying multiple stamps, you can also buy a single stamp of $0.87 for 2 ounce letter and $1.11 stamp for 3 ounce letter. Some people know how much their stamp will cost and they directly buy a stamp but some people just add one by one to figure out the number of stamps they require, either way it will cover the cost.
Read Also: Does Walmart Sell Stamps?
How many Stamps for a Parcel or Postcards?
Are you mailing a parcel instead of a letter? Let’s see how many stamps you need for this. For a standard sized postcard, it costs $0.48 while for postcards larger than 6” x 4 ¼ sizes you can use the first class stamp of $0.63. You will know more about these scenarios in one of the following sections, “Types of Envelopes”. When you have to post odd-shaped envelopes or bulky envelopes, you can visit the nearest post office. The officers there will help you determine the charges for your letter or parcel. Go with their knowledge instead of going with your guess. But the most important thing is that you know about forever stamps.
Forever Stamps remain of the price no matter what the current price of First-Class stamp. Even if the stamps have gone up you can still use these forever stamps which you bought last year. One can buy both types of forever stamps i.e. Domestic and Global Forever Stamps. The other stamps including Forever Stamps generally don’t expire. The golden rule for Forever Stamps is that they are legitimate for as long as they are valid. Despite the increase in prices, these forever stamps remain unaffected. As long as they are valid, you can use them, despite their age.
Read Also: Does Walgreens Sell Stamps?
What Does Paper Weigh?
A single sheet of notebook or the printer sheet is around 0.16 ounces. So it is interesting to note that you can mail the four pages of notebook or printer sheet along with the envelope in just one First Class Stamp. It completely depends on the weight of the paper; you can mail up to 5 papers with First Class stamps But if you are sending some paperwork which consists of papers more than that then there will be an additional charge for every once i.e. $0.20.
That’s what you need to know before mailing a package. We hope that you gather all the required information. From types of stamps to criteria of calculating the number of stamps you require to the price you will need to pay, we have tried to cover everything up.
Wait, We have already mentioned about Where to Buy Stamps in our online guide so don’t forget to check this if you need help.
Read Also: How Many Stamps In a Book & How Much It Cost?
How many stamps do you need? [A Summary]
Check how many postage stamps you need depending on the type of letter or package you are sending.
- For a standard letter: If a person is mailing a standard letter then one Forever Stamp or one First class stamp needs to stick at the top right corner of the envelope. The number of stamps required depends on the size and weight of the letter. If the size of the letter you want to post is standard then using one Forever stamp will be enough for mailing it in any part of the US.
- For a package: For all the packages which weigh less than 12 ounces, postage stamps are enough. If the package weighs more than 12 ounces, you have to measure the size and dimensions of the package to calculate the charges. The origin and destination country of the shipment also play a vital role in arriving at the final postage charges. Usually, for the first three ounces of any package the cost is $2.66.
- For a 9 by 12 envelope: The type of envelope also plays a role in deciding the price of the stamp. Postal services accept letters of standard dimensions of 9 x 12. Sticking a stamp on the letter makes it easy for you to get proper postal services.But for customers who have to mail envelopes larger than the standard size have to pay $1.00 for first ounce and $0.21 for all the additional ounces.
- For a large envelope: For mailing a one-ounce legal size envelope, two Forever Stamps are sufficient to mail. For every additional ounce and extra day, you need to pay $0.50 and $0.21 respectively. You can use large envelopes, known as Flats, if you want to mail sheaves of paper and photos, too.
- For a USPS Postage: The United States Postal Service, USPS in short, is the department that takes care of all the work related to mailing letters and packages. They take care of the whole process of mailing. From sorting mails to supplying the essentials required for mailing. The price of these USPS postage stamps varies based on the type of event. Their minimum charge is $0.5 for one ounce.
- For international mail: You can use Global Forever Stamps when you want to mail postcards around the world. You can use these postage to send one-ounce letters to any destination in the world. These stamps are available in the local post offices near you. If you are mailing a post from the United States then the international first class mail will cost you $1.16 for each Global forever stamp but currently the price is $0.58. Therefore, you can make calculations on how many stamps you require based on what you are mailing and the cost of the forever stamp.
- Per ounce: The weight of the letter or parcel decides the number of stamps that you need to affix on it. If you are the sender, you need to weigh the package properly, especially, if it is more than one ounce. This will keep hindrances away. It will also ensure that your letter or parcel reaches the destination properly. A slight error in affixing postage can cause the letter to come back to you without reaching the original destination. The postal department would mark “lack of postage” as the reason for the return. Forever Stamps are excellent choices, if you want to mail a one-ounce, standard letter within your country.
The question still remains: how many stamps do we need? Well, now you have a rough idea about the working of stamps and how many stamps you require for mailing a letter. Weight and Dimensions are the most important parameters for mailing. Hence, there are strict rules to pay the postage stamps according to these parameters. You will get back the mail in your address, if you fail to do this.
If you don’t measure your heavy parcels properly, you might get them delivered back to your address.To avoid such incontinence, we suggest you to carefully measure the parcel before mailing it. Regardless of the size of the parcel, you can be sure that your parcel will reach the right destination, if you pay the postage charges properly.
Read Also: How to Create Paypal Shipping Label Without Purchase or Invoice
About Postage Stamps
The markets sell various kinds of stamps today. Postage stamps price depends on the item which you want to mail. The postage charges depend on the weight, height and dimensions of your shipment. For the general public the huge variety of stamps are available in the market. Everyone can choose as per their item and need.
Below we have mentioned everything you need to know About stamps.
In general language, we know postage stamps as just “stamps”. Stamp is a tiny paper issue by the post office, postal administration or any other authorized postage stamp vendor following the rules and regulations of the government. The sender of the mail has to pay an amount to the seller which covers the cost of moving, insuring and registering the mail.
Then you need to fix the postage stamp on the face of the mail or on the cover, near the address. After this, the postal officials start the process. They provide a postal mark which states the date and origin of the mail on the stamp. This mark eliminates issues, such as reuse or misuse of mails. After this process, the mail reaches the recipient, whose address you have written on the package.
All postage stamps contain the following information:
- Country of issue
- Illustration of people
- Natural Realities
- Other landmarks that bear important symbols of the country of its issue, and the relevant currency
There is no fixed shape of postage stamps. It may vary but at this time it is rectangular in shape. Sometimes they are triangular, square etc. People can also customize stamps as per their requirement but it depends on the issuing post office.
Read Also: USPS Butterfly Stamp
So these were the different kinds of postage available in the market for use. But the question still remains the same: how many stamps a regular person requires? A person will surely not require all the stamps we have mentioned above. All postage have their sub-genres and their usage varies on the basis of the type of item you are mailing. Also their cost differs due to the same reason. Hence, here we are to provide you with the knowledge of how many stamps you will require over the period of time on different kinds of occasions.
14 thoughts on “How Many Stamps Do I Need for a Letter in 2023?”
Can anyone just tell me how many postage stamp do I need for 7 pages?
Generally speaking, you can mail 4 to 6 pages of regular paper, plus an envelope, for the regular first class (“one stamp”) rate. You have to calculate weight of your 7 pages to get the right result. I have shared step on how to use online usps postage calculator in article. please check.
How many postage stamp do I need to send a postcard to Germany?
It would costs you $1.60 to send a letter to Germany from USA. You have to use Forever Stamps for international mail that total $1.60.
Kevin How many postage do I need to put on a 2 oz bubble mailer?
Bubble mailer are the first class package because of their size. A 6” x 9” envelope weighing up to 1 ounce requires one $0.50 USPS First Class rate stamp.
Hey there, Can I use 3 Forever stamps for international mail?
Jennifer, The letter must be one ounce or less, and only then you can use one Global Forever stamp or three Forever Stamps.
Can I use multiple stamps for international mail?
Yes Kylie, If you are not using or don’t have a Global Forever stamp then you can use the Forever Stamps depending on the weight of letter, and pages you are using.
How many postage stamps needed for a 9 x 12 Manilla envelope?
Currently, the postage stamp for a 9 x 12 manila envelope weighing 1 ounce requires two Forever Stamps.
How many postage stamps do I need for 3 oz letter?
For a 3 oz First Class letter you will need 1 Forever stamp and 2 additional oz stamps. In May 2022, the 1 Forever stamp price is $0.58 and Additional Ounce Stamp price is $0.20 so the total cost will be $0.98 for 3 oz letter.